21 Sep 2014

The Mughal Rulers from 1526-1707

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The House of Timur moved to India: Babur established the Timurid Dynasty in India in 1526 which is known as the Mughal empire (1526-1857). Babur was sixth in descent from Timur, while his mother was a descendant of Chengiz Khan. The first six Mughal Emperors from Babur to Aurangzeb are known as the great Mughals.
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Babur, the first Mughal Emperor (1526-1530)

Babur, founder of the Mughal empire

Meaning The Tiger
Full Name Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
Born 14 February 1483 at Andijan, Uzbekistan
Significance Established the Mughal Empire in 1526
Conquests 1st Battle of Panipat (1526)
Battle of Khanwa (1527)
Battle of Ghagra (1529)
Parents Umar Shaikh Mirza and Kutluk Nigar Khanum
Wives
Maham Begum, Aisha Sultan Begum, Zeineb Sultan Begum, Maasumeh Sultan Begum, Bibi Mubarika or Bika Begum, Dildar Begum, Gulrukh Begum, Gulnar Agha Begum, Raiqah Begum
Sons Humayun, Kamran (by Gulrukh Begum), Askari (by Gulrukh Begum), Hindal (by Dildar Begum)
Daughters Gulrang, Gulchihra, Gulbadan (three daughters by Dildar Begum) Gulrukh or Gulbarg
Successor Humayun
Died 26 December 1530 at Agra
Burial Bagh-e-Babur at Kabul, Afghanistan (Outside India)
Autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi
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Humayun, the second Mughal Emperor (1530-1540 & 1555-1556)

Humayun

Meaning Auspicious
Full Name Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun
Born 6 March 1508 at Kabul, Afghanistan
Significance Mughal Empire was interrupted by the Sur Dynasty. Humayun re-established the Mughal Empire in 1555.
Conquests Battle of Chausa (1539)
Battle of Kannauj (1540)
Parents Babur and Maham
Wives Bega Begum or Haji Begum, Hamida Banu Begum, Gunwar Bibi, Mah Chuchak, Maywa Jan, Khanish Agha Khwarizmi
Sons Akbar, Muhammad Hakim (by Mah Chuchak)
Daughters Aqiqa (by Bega Begum), Bakshi Banu (by Gunwar Bibi), Fakhru-n-nisa (by Mah Chuchak)
Successor Akbar
Died 24 Jan 1556 at Delhi
Death Due to accidental fall from the stairs of his library at Sher Mandal
Burial Humayun's Tomb at Delhi. It was built by Bega Begum
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Akbar the Great, the third Mughal Emperor (1556-1605)

Akbar and Hira Kunwari

Meaning The Great
Full Name Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar
Born 15 October 1542 at Umerkot, Pakistan
Significance Re-established the Mughal Empire after defeating Hemu (1556). Known as the greatest ruler of the Mughal dynasty. Propagated the idea of Sulahkul ie, Universal Peace. Married Hindu princesses. Abolished Jizya tax on non-Muslims.
Conquests 2nd Battle of Panipat (1556)
Battle of Haldighati (1576)
Parents Humayun and Hamida Banu (Miriam Makani)
Wives Ruqaiya Begum, daughter of Prince Hindal
Salima Sultan Begum, daughter of Princess Gulbarg and widow of Bairam Khan
Rajkumari Hira Kunwari (Hindu), daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber
Bibi Daulat Shad
Sons Salim (Jahangir), Murad, Daniel
Daughters Shahzada Khanum, Shukr-un-nisa (by Bibi Daulat Shad), Aram Banu (by Bibi Daulat Shad)
Successor Khusrau (eldest son of Salim)
Died 15 Oct 1605 at Agra
Burial Akbar's Tomb at Sikandara, Agra
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Jahangir, the fourth Mughal Emperor (1605-1627)

Jahangir offers jewels to Asaf Khan

Meaning Conqueror of the world
Full Name Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim
Born 30 August 1569 at Fatehpur Sikri, Agra
Significance Mughal painting reached its zenith. Received the first British ambassador (Sir Thomas Roe) and gave permission to the British to trade in India
Conquests Victory over Mewar (1615)
Conquest of Kangra (1620)
Parents Akbar and ?
Wives Mihr-un-nissa better known as Nur Jahan, widow of Sher Afgan. Her tomb is located at Shahdara Bagh in Lahore
Rajkumari Man Bai or Shah Begum (Hindu), daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das of Amber and sister of Raja Man Singh. Her tomb is located at Khusro Bagh in Allahabad
Rajkumari Jagat Gosaine better known as Jodh Bai (Hindu), daughter of Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpur
Sahibi Jamal
Rajkumari Karamsi (Hindu), daughter of Raja Kesho Das Rathore
Rajkumari Malika Jahan (Hindu), daughter of Rawal Bhim Singh of Jaisalmer
Granddaughter of Raja Man Singh of Amber (Hindu)
Daughter of Ram Chand Bundela of Orchha (Hindu)
Sons Khusrau (by Man Bai), Paveiz (by Sahibi Jamal), Khurram (Shah Jahan), Jahandar, Shahryar
Daughters Sultanu-n-nissa (by Man Bai), Bihar Banu (by Karamsi)
Successor Khusrau (Khusrau died in 1621, before his father and his tomb is located at Khusro Bagh in Allahabad. We are not sure whether Jahangir had declared Khusrau's son, Bulaqi (Dawar Bakshsh) his successor, after Khusrau's death. However, Dawar Bakshsh's name is not in the official list of emperors.)
Died 28 Oct 1627 at Kashmir
Burial Jahangir's Tomb at Shahdara Bagh, Lahore, Pakistan (Outside India)
Autobiography Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri
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Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal Emperor (1628-1658)

Shah Jahan

Meaning King of the World
Full Name Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram
Nick Name Prince of Builders, Architect king, Engineer King
Born 5 January 1592 at Lahore, Pakistan
Significance Golden reign of Mughal architecture. Was deposed and imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb in 1658.
Parents Jahangir and Jodh Bai
Wives Arjumand Banu Begum better known as Mumtaz Mahal, niece of Empress Nur Jahan. Her tomb is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built by Shah Jahan
Kandahari Begum
Azz un-Nisa Begum or Akbarabadi Mahal, granddaughter of Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, step-son of Akbar
Sons Dara Shukoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb (Alamgir), Murad Bakshsh (all four sons by Mumtaz Mahal)
Daughters Purhunar Banu (by Kandahari Begum), Jahan Ara, Roshan Ara, Gauhar Ara (three daughters by Mumtaz Mahal)
Successor Dara Shukoh
Died 22 January 1666 at Agra
Burial Taj Mahal at Agra
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Aurangzeb Alamgir, the sixth Mughal Emperor (1658-1707)

Aurangzeb

Meaning Conqueror of the world
Full Name Muhi-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb
Nick Name Zinda Pir (Living Saint)
Born 24 October 1618 at Dahod, Gujarat
Significance
Murdered his own brothers and imprisoned his father for the throne. Reverted Akbar's policies and reimposed the Jizya tax on Hindus. Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal emperor. Although the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb, it was also weakened due to the revolts of Sikhs, Rajputs, Jats and the Marathas. The mighty empire fell apart after the death of Aurangzeb.
Parents Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal
Lover Hira Bai or Zainabadi Mahal, a court dancer. She died young
Wives Dilras Banu Begum. Her tomb is the Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad, built by Azam Shah
Nawab Bai
Hira Bai or Zainabadi Mahal
Aurangabadi Mahal
Udaipuri Mahal
Sons Sultan Muhammad (by Nawab Bai), Muazzam (Shah Alam Bahadur Shah), Azam Shah (by Dilras Banu Begum), Akbar (by Dilras Banu Begum), Kam Bakhsh (by Udaipuri Mahal)
Daughters Zeb-un-Nissa (by Dilras Banu Begum), Zinat-un-Nissa (by Dilras Banu Begum), Badr-un-Nissa (by Nawab Bai), Zubdat-un-Nissa (by Dilras Banu Begum), Mihr-un-Nissa (by Aurangabadi Mahal)
Successor Shah Alam Bahadur Shah
Died 21 February 1707 at Ahmednagar
Burial Aurangzeb's Tomb at Khuldabad, Aurangabad

Notes:

By Successor Here means, the preferred successor of their fathers/grandfathers

5 comments:

  1. Interesting collection of info.

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  2. super anjana it very useful for me thank you very much

    ReplyDelete
  3. Great compilation of essential information about history of mughals. Thanks for posting!

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    Replies
    1. Such a Great and Deepest information, easy to memorize .

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  4. Fascinating! Just love their nick names, I mean just who cooked them up? E.g. Living Saint! And the next descriptors 'murdered his brothers and imprisoned his own father' ? So was that a joke? Another one builder, architect, engineer king? Was the man actually educated? It's one thing to employ artisans to touch up preexisting buildings and quite something else to be designated an architect.

    In the description for Timur it states he took back architects to his homeland, well so much for Islamic architecture in that case.

    This article is a well intentioned attempt but lacks depth and insight and is to put it politely further regurgitation of a romanticized notion of this group of notorious rulers.

    ReplyDelete

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