13 Oct 2014

The Mughal Rulers from 1707-1857

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The Later Mughals: The Mughal rulers after Aurangzeb are called the later Mughals. They were weak rulers.

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Shah Alam Bahadur Shah, the seventh Mughal Emperor (1707-1712)
Full Name Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Muazzam
Born 14 October 1643 at Burhanpur
Parents Aurangzeb and Nawab Bai
Wives
Nizam Bai, Rajkumari Amrita Bai (Hindu), daughter of Raja Rup Singh of Kishangarh, Nur un-nisa Begum, Mihr-Parwar or Mihr un-nisa Begum, Amat ul-Habib Begum, Chattar Bai
Sons
Jahandar Shah, Azimu-sh Shan (by Amrita Bai), Rafiu-sh Shan (by Nur un-nisa Begum), Khujista Akhtar Jahan Shah
Daughters Dahr Afroz Banu Begum
Died 27 February 1712 at Lahore
Burial Dargah of Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi
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Jahandar Shah, the eighth Mughal Emperor (1712-1713)
Full Name Muizz-ud-din Muhammad Jahandar Shah
Born 10 May 1661 at Burhanpur
Parents Bahadur Shah Alam and Nizam Bai
Lover Lal Kunwar, a court dancer. Later she became Jahandar Shah's chief wife
Wives
Lal Kunwar or Imtiyaz Mahal, Anup Bai, Sayyid-un-nisa Begum, Jina Begum
Sons
Azz-ud-din, Aziz-ud-din (Alamgir II), Izz-ud-din
Daughters Iffat Ara Begum, Rabi Begum
Died
Jahandar Shah was defeated and murdered by Farrukh Siyar on 11 Feb 1713 at Delhi
Burial Humayun's Tomb at Delhi
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Farrukh Siyar, the ninth Mughal Emperor (1713-1719)
Full Name Muin ud-din Muhammad Farrukh Siyar
Significance
Farrukh Siyar came to power with the help of two most powerful nobles, Abdullah Khan and Husain Ali Khan, known as the Sayyid brothers. They were the real power in the state. When Farrukh Siyar tried to suppress the powers of the Sayyid brothers, they got him deposed and murdered. After the death of Farrukh Siyar, Maharaja Ajit Singh took back his daughter to Jodhpur; for the first time in Mughal history.
Born 11 September 1683 at Aurangabad
Parents Azimu-sh Shan and Sahiba Nizwan
Wives
Fakhr-un-nissa Begum, Rajkumari Indira Kanwar (Hindu), daughter of Maharaja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur
Sons Both sons died in infancy
Daughters Malika-uz-Zamani (by Fakhr-un-nissa Begum)
Died
Farrukh Siyar was deposed (28 Feb 1719) and murdered by the Sayyid Brothers on 29 April 1719 at Delhi.
Burial Humayun's Tomb at Delhi
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Rafi-ud-Darajat, the tenth Mughal Emperor (1719)
Rafi-ud-Darajat
Full Name Shams-ud-din Abul Barakat Rafi-ud-Darajat
Significance
Ruled like a puppet while the entire authority was in the hands of the Sayyid ministers
Born 30 November 1699
Parents
Rafiu-sh Shan and Raziyyat-un-nisa Begum (daughter of Prince Akbar, son of Aurangzeb)
Wives Inayat Banu Begum
Children None
Successor
Rafi-ud-Daulah (Shah Jahan II), brother of Rafi-ud-Darajat
Died 11 June 1719 at Agra
Burial Dargah of Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi
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Shah Jahan II, the eleventh Mughal Emperor (1719)
Full Name Rafi-ud-din Muhammad Rafi-ud-daulah
Significance
Ruled like a puppet while the entire authority was in the hands of the Sayyid ministers
Born June 1696
Parents Rafiu-sh Shan and Nur un-nisa Begum
Died 19 September 1719 at Fatehpur Sikri
Burial Dargah of Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi
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Muhammad Shah, the twelfth Mughal Emperor (1719-1748)
MuḼammad Shah and his minister Itimad al-Daula Qamar al-Din Khan

Full Name Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Roshan Akhtar
Nick Name
Muhammad Shah Rangila (Muhammad Shah, the merry monarch)
Born 17 August 1702 at Fatehpur
Significance
Muhammad Shah, got murdered the Sayyid brothers, Hussain Ali Khan in 1720 and Abdullah Khan in 1722, with the help of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah. In Oct 1720, Muhammad Ibrahim, son of Rafiu-sh Shan by Nur-un-nissa Begum, was raised to the throne, but subsequently deposed by Muhammad Shah. In 1739, Nadir Shah of Iran invaded India and defeated the Mughals in the Battle at Karnal. Muhammad Shah was the last emperor to sit on the Peacock Throne of Shah Jahan. When Nadir Shah went back to Iran he took with him immense wealth as well as the Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor Diamond from Red Fort. This invasion by Nadir Shah led to the further disintegration of the Mughal empire.
Parents Khujista Akhtar Jahan Shah and Qudsiya Begum also known as Fakhr-un-nissa Begum
Wives
Malika-uz-Zamani, daughter of Farrukh Siyar, Sahiba Mahal, Safiya Sultan Begum, Udham Bai or Kudsiya Begum
Sons Ahmad Shah
Daughters Hazrat Begum, Badshah Begum, Jahan Afruz Banu Begum
Successor Ahmad Shah
Died 15 April 1748 at Delhi
Burial Muhammad Shah's Tomb at Delhi
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Ahmad Shah Bahadur, the thirteenth Mughal Emperor (1748-1754)
Full Name Mujahid-ud-din Ahmad Shah
Born 23 December 1725 at Delhi
Significance
The affairs of the government was managed by the queen mother Udham Bai
Parents Muhammad Shah and Udham Bai
Wives Gauhar Afruz Banu Begum
Sons
Hamid Shah Bahadur, Bidar Bakht, Tala Said Shah Bahadur, Jamiyat Shah Bahadur, Dilawar Shah Bahadur, Mirza Rujbi, Mirza Mughlu
Daughters Muhtaram-un-nisa, Dil Afruz
Died
Ahmad Shah Bahadur was deposed and murdered by Ghazi-ud-din Imad-ul-Mulk, son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, on 1 January 1775 at Delhi
Burial Mausoleum of Mariam Makani at Delhi
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Alamgir II, the fourteenth Mughal Emperor (1754-1759)
Full Name Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Alamgir II
Born 6 June 1699 at Multan
Significance
Ahmad Shah Abdali (successor of Nadir Shah) invaded India and plundered Delhi in 1757.
Parents Jahandar Shah and Anup Bai
Wives
Zinat-afroz Begum, Sayyid Begum, Zinat Mahal or Lal Kunwar, Faiz Bakht Begum, Azizabadi Mahal, Latifa Begum, Aurangabadi Mahal
Sons Ali Gauhar (Shah Alam II), Hidayat Bakhsh
Daughters
Zuhra Begum or Muhammadi Begum, Khairu-n nisa Begum
Died
Alamgir II was murdered by Ghazi-ud-din Imad-ul-Mulk on 29 November 1759 at Kotla Firoz Shah
Burial Humayun's Tomb at Delhi
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Shah Alam II, the fifteenth Mughal Emperor (1760-1788 & 1789-1806)
Shah Alam reviewing troops of the British East India Company

Full Name Ham ud-din Muhammad Ali Gauhar
Born 25 June 1728 at Shahjahanabad
Significance
Muhi-ul-millat, grandson of Kam Baksh, son of Aurangzeb, was raised to the throne by Imad-ul-Mulk under the title Shah Jahan III in Dec 1759. The Marathas under Sadashiv Rao Bhau entered Delhi and captured the Mughal capital in August 1760. Sadashiv Rao deposed Shah Jahan III (Oct 1760) and proclaimed Ali Gauhar under the title of Shah Alam to the throne. In the Third Battle of Panipat (14 Jan 1761), Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated Sadashiv Rao and thus the Marathas lost their supremacy in Delhi. Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Daula reaffirmed Shah Alam II as the rightful Mughal emperor. Shah Alam took part in the Battle of Buxar (23 Oct 1764) with Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal and Shuja-ud-Daula against the British. Followed by his defeat by Hector Munro, Shah Alam signed the Treaty of Allahabad that granted Diwani rights to the British in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. He was the first British pensioner. Shah Alam was deposed and blinded by Ghulam Qadir Rohilla in 1788 and Bidar Bakht, son of Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur, was raised to the throne under the title of Jahan Shah IV. Ghulam Qadir Rohilla was later murdered by the Maratha ruler Mahadji Scindia and Emperor Shah Alam was re-installed on 7th February 1789.
Parents Alamgir II and Zinat Mahal
Wives
Piari Begum, Taj Mahal Begum, Jamil un-nisa Begum, Qudsia Begum or Mubaraq Mahal, Murad Bakht Begum
Sons Jawan Bakht or Jahandar Shah, Akbar Shah, Sulaiman Shikoh, Ahsan Bakht, Farkhunda Bakht
Daughters Begum Jahan
Successor Jawan Bakht (died on 31 May 1788)
Died 19 November 1806 at Shahjahanabad
Burial Dargah of Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi
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Akbar Shah II, the sixteenth Mughal Emperor (1806-1837)
Full Name Muin ud-din Muhammad Akbar Shah
Born 22 April 1760 at Mukundpur
Parents Shah Alam II and Qudsia Begum
Wives Lal Bai, Selaa'h un-nissa, Mumtaz Mahal, Gumani Khanum
Sons
Bahadur Shah (Bahadur Shah Zafar), Mirza Jahangir (by Mumtaz Mahal), Mirza Jahan Shah (by Selaa'h un-nissa), Mirza Nazim Shah (by Gumani Khanum), Mirza Babur (by Mumtaz Mahal), Mirza Salim
Successor Mirza Jahangir (died in 1821). Mirza Salim
Died 28 September 1837 at Delhi
Burial Dargah of Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki at Mehrauli, Delhi
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Bahadur Shah Zafar, THE LAST MUGHAL EMPEROR (1837-1857)
Zinat Mahal and Bahadur Shah Zafar

Full Name Siraj ud-din Muhammad Bahadur Shah
Born 24 October 1775 at Delhi
Significance
Last ruler of the Timurid dynasty. He took part in the Indian rebellion of 1857. He was deposed by the British and exiled to Rangoon (in Burma) followed by their victory.
Parents Akbar Shah and Lal Bai
Wives
Zinat Mahal, Taj Mahal, Sharaf ul-Mahal Sayyidani
Sons
Dara Bakht, Mirza Fakhr-ud-din, Jawan Bakht (by Zinat Mahal), Mirza Mughal, Mirza Khizr Sultan, Mirza Shah Abbas, Bakhtawar Shah, Mirza Meandoo, Mirza Abdulla and Mirza Qwaish
Successor Jawan Bakht
Died 7 November 1862 at Rangoon
Burial Rangoon in Burma (Bahadur Shah wished to be buried at the Dargah of Qutb-ud-din Kaki at Mehrauli)

Notes:

By Successor Here means, the preferred successor of their fathers

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