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13 May 2016

Anglo Mysore Wars: Second Anglo Mysore War—Treaty of Mangalore

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The Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-1784): Victory of Tipu Sultan

Surrender of Baillie to Hyder Ali

The Second Anglo-Mysore war started when Hyder Ali invaded the Carnatic in Jul 1780. General Sir Hector Munro assumed the command of the British forces and marched his army to Kanchipuram. Hyder detached his son Tipu with 40,000 men to intercept Colonel Baillie, who was on his way with his army to join Munro. In this Battle at Pollilur on 10 Sep 1780, Tipu defeated Colonel Baillie's forces. On hearing this news, Sir Hector Munro threw off all his guns into the tank of Kanchipuram and retreated to Madras. According to historical records, the defeat of Baillie was the severest blow that the British ever sustained in India.

Colonel Baillie's Dungeon
In this Dungeon were confined for many years the British officers taken prisoners by Tipu Sultan. Named after Colonel Baillie who died here in 1782
After Baillie's defeat, Hyder recommenced the siege of Arcot and took it by November. On 1 Jul, 1781, General Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder's forces at the Battle of Porto Novo. Tipu who was investing Wandiwash, was recalled to join his father at Arcot. However, Hyder was again defeated in two successive battles, at Pollilur on 27th Aug 1781, and then at Sholinghur on 27 Sep 1781. But Tipu inflicted a crushing defeat on Colonel Braithwaite at Tanjore, in Feb 1782.

Death of Hyder Ali Khan (7th Dec 1782): In Aug 1782, the British under Colonel Humberstone seized Calicut and advanced towards Palakkad. Hyder dispatched Tipu to oppose them, and the British retreated to Ponnani. Tipu with the assistance of the French resisted the British forces who were preparing for the siege of Palakkad. He made a vigorous attack at Ponnani but was compelled to retreat. While waiting for the reinforcements he received the news of Hyder's death. Hyder had for a long time suffered from a cancer on his back and he died on 7th Dec, 1782 at Narasingarayanpet near Chittoor (in Andhra Pradesh), at the age of sixty. The ministers Purnaiya and Krisha Rao kept Hyder's death as secret until the arrival of Tipu from Malabar. Hyder's body was sent to Kolar in a chest resembling some valuable spoil.

Tipu Sultan, popularly known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the eldest son of Hyder Ali Khan. His full name is Fateh Ali Khan. He was called by the British as Tippoo Sahib. Tipu succeeded his father on 29 Dec 1782.

Hyder Ali Khan

The Treaty of Mangalore (1784):

When the news of Hyder's death reached the British, General Matthews seized Hyder Nagar, Bednore, Honavar and Mangalore. Tipu divided his army into two columns, with one retook Hyder Nagar and Kavale-durga and with the other Anantpur. Afterwards Bednore was also recovered with much difficulty. Tipu now laid siege to Mangalore, but meanwhile, the French withdrew their support for Tipu following the Treaty of Paris in July 1783. Tipu who had employed to block the provisions to the garrison at Mangalore, agreed to a temporary armistice; and the starved-out garrison was allowed to retire to Tellicherry. As soon as Tipu left Carnatic, General Stuart captured Wandiwash, Karunguli and Vellore. In Malabar, after capturing Palakkad and Coimbatore, Colonel Fullerton was about to advance against Srirangapatna, but by then, the Madras government had sent envoys to Tipu to make terms of peace (Mangalore still continued in the hands of British until peace concluded between Tipu Sultan and the British in the following year).

Thus the second Mysore war came to an end with the Treaty of Mangalore in Mar 11, 1784 signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company; and under the terms of the treaty, both sides once again returned the conquered territories as well as the prisoners.


Notes:

It is suspected that Raja Nanjaraj Wodeyar (1770) and his successor Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII (1776) were poisoned at the instigation of Hyder. He then raised Chamaraja Wodeyar IX.

Reference:

Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan and the struggle with the Musulman powers of the South by Bowring, Lewin Benthan

Mysore - A Gazetteer compiled For Government by Benjamin Lewis Rice

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