13 May 2016

Anglo Mysore Wars: Second Anglo Mysore War—Treaty of Mangalore

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Background: In 1770, when Madhav Rao invaded Mysore a third time Hyder demanded the assistance of the British, however they didn't come up for his aid. Hyder sued for peace and in Jun 1772, a treaty was concluded on his agreement to pay thirty lacs of rupees. Half of the amount was immediately paid by him and for the rest Kolar, Hoskote, Sira, Doddaballapur, Maddagiri, Chitradurga and Gurramkonda were left in the Marathas hands. Shortly after this Peshwa Madhav Rao died in Nov 1772 and was succeeded by his brother Narayan Rao and then by his uncle Raghunatha Rao. Hyder conquered Coorg (also known as Kodagu) in 1773 and recaptured Malabar in the same year; while his son Tipu recovered all the places in the north ceded to the Marathas. Thus between Sep 1773 and Feb 1774, Hyder completely recovered all the territories he had lost. Bellary and Gutti were captured in 1776. The failure of negotiations with the British had made Hyder ill-disposed towards them. During the American War of Independence in 1778, France joined America against British; and upon this the British attacked the French possessions in India. Pondicherry was taken in Oct 1778; and Mahe in Mar 1779 which was one of Hyder's territories. Offended by this Hyder threatened to plunder Arcot (the capital of Carnatic).

The Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-1784):

Surrender of Baillie to Hyder Ali

The Second Anglo-Mysore war started when Hyder Ali invaded the Carnatic in Jul 1780. General Sir Hector Munro assumed the command of the British forces and marched to Kanchipuram. Hyder detached Tipu with 40,000 men to intercept Colonel Baillie, who was on his way to join Munro. In this Battle at Pollilur on 10 Sep 1780, Tipu defeated Colonel Baillie's forces. On hearing this news Sir Hector Munro threw off all his guns into the tank of Kanchipuram and retreated to Madras. According to historical records, the defeat of Baillie was the severest blow that the British ever sustained in India.

Colonel Baillie's Dungeon
In this Dungeon were confined for many years the British officers taken prisoners by Tipu Sultan. Named after Colonel Baillie who died here in 1782
After Baillie's defeat Hyder recommenced the siege of Arcot and took the fort by November. On 1 Jul, 1781, General Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder's forces at the Battle of Porto Novo. Tipu who was investing Wandiwash, was recalled to join his father at Arcot. However, Hyder was again defeated at Pollilur on 27th Aug 1781, and then at Sholinghur on 27 Sep 1781. In Feb 1782, Tipu inflicted a crushing defeat on Colonel Braithwaite at Tanjore.

Death of Hyder Ali Khan (7th Dec 1782): In Aug, the British under Colonel Humberstone seized Calicut and advanced towards Palakkad. Hyder dispatched Tipu to oppose them and the British retreated to Ponnani. Tipu with the assistance of the French resisted the British forces who were preparing for the siege of Palakkad. He made a vigorous attack at Ponnani but was compelled to retreat. While waiting for the reinforcements he received the news of Hyder's death. Hyder had for a long time suffered from a cancer on his back and he died on 7th Dec, 1782 at Narasingarayanpet near Chittoor (in Andhra Pradesh), at the age of sixty. The ministers Purnaiya and Krisha Rao kept Hyder's death as secret until the arrival of Tipu from Malabar. Hyder's body was sent to Kolar in a chest resembling some valuable spoil. Tipu succeeded his father on 29 Dec 1782 under the title of Nawab Tipu Sultan Bahadur.

Hyder Ali Khan

The Treaty of Mangalore (1784): 

Tipu Sultan continued the war and defeated the British at Wandiwash in 1783. General Matthews captured Bednore, Honavar and Mangalore. Tipu divided his army into two columns, with one retook Hydernagar and Kavale-durga and with the other Anantpur. Bednore was plundered and Mangalore was retaken from the British. Meanwhile, the French withdrew their support for Tipu following the Treaty of Paris in July 1783. Followed by this a peace treaty was concluded on 2nd Aug. As soon as Tipu left the Carnatic, General Stuart captured Wandiwash, Karunguli, Vellore and Cuddalore. After capturing Palakkad and Coimbatore Colonel Fullerton made preparations to advance against Srirangapatna.

The second Mysore war came to an end with the Treaty of Mangalore in Mar 11, 1784 signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company. Under the terms of the treaty both sides once again returned the conquered territories as well as the prisoners.

Notes:

In 1772, when Hyder found that Raja Nanjaraj Wodeyar had been in secret communication with the Marathas, he put him to death and his brother Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII was raised to the throne. In 1776, Raja Chamaraja Wodeyar died and was succeeded by Chamaraja Wodeyar IX.

According to the Mysore Gazetteer, at the time of Maratha invasion, both Hyder and the Marathas claimed protection from the British, who therefore remained neutral.

Reference:

Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan and the struggle with the Musulman powers of the South by Bowring, Lewin Benthan

Mysore - A Gazetteer compiled For Government by Benjamin Lewis Rice

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