Anjana's Blog

Mysore Invasion of Kerala: Hyder Ali's Invasion

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During Hyder Ali's invasion, the important chieftains of Malabar, otherwise known as Kerala, were the Rajas of Travancore and Cochin, the Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri of Kozhikode) and the Kolathiri Raja of Chirakkal. Since Jan 1663, the kingdom of Cochin was under the control of the Dutch. The British East India Company also had a supreme position in Malabar as they established a trading factory at Tellicherry in 1683. Hyder Ali invaded Malabar for the first time in 1757 upon the request of the Raja of Palakkad to help him against the Zamorin's attack. At that time Hyder was serving as the Faujdar of Dindigul under the Wodeyars of Mysore. Hyder sent his brother-in-law Makhdoom Ali to Calicut and defeated the Zamorin. The Zamorin sued for peace and agreed to pay a war indemnity of rupees 12 lacs.

Anglo Mysore Wars: Second Anglo Mysore War—Treaty of Mangalore

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Background: In 1770, when Madhav Rao invaded Mysore a third time Hyder demanded the assistance of the British, however they didn't come up for his aid. Hyder sued for peace and in Jun 1772, a treaty was concluded on his agreement to pay thirty lacs of rupees. Half of the amount was immediately paid by him and for the rest Kolar, Hoskote, Sira, Doddaballapur, Maddagiri, Chitradurga and Gurramkonda were left in the Marathas hands. Shortly after this Peshwa Madhav Rao died in Nov 1772 and was succeeded by his brother Narayan Rao and then by his uncle Raghunatha Rao. Hyder conquered Coorg (also known as Kodagu) in 1773 and recaptured Malabar in the same year; while his son Tipu recovered all the places in the north ceded to the Marathas. Thus between Sep 1773 and Feb 1774, Hyder completely recovered all the territories he had lost. Bellary and Gutti were captured in 1776. The failure of negotiations with the British had made Hyder ill-disposed towards them. During the American War of Independence in 1778, France joined America against British; and upon this the British attacked the French possessions in India. Pondicherry was taken in Oct 1778; and Mahe in Mar 1779 which was one of Hyder's territories. Offended by this Hyder threatened to plunder Arcot (the capital of Carnatic).

Flowering Plants of Kerala: White Bougainvillea

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Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta or Angiosperms – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicots
Subclass: Caryophyllidae
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Nyctaginaceae (The Four o'clock family)
Botanical name: Bougainvillea glabra
Common Name: Paper Flower
Malayalam Name: Kadalasu Poovu Chedi
Habit: Perennial Climber

Flowering Plants of Kerala: Barbados Lily

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Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta or Angiosperms – Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida – Monocots
Subclass: Liliidae
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae (The Lily family)
Botanical name: Hippeastrum puniceum
Common Name: Barbados Lily or Amaryllis Lily 
Habit: Perennial Herb

Hyder Ali, Otherwise Styled Nawab Hyder Ali Khan Bahadur

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Mysore is mainly known for its palaces, silk, sandalwood; and above all, its rulers: Hyder Ali Khan and his son Tipu Sultan. Hyder Ali Khan and his son Tipu Sultan were the de facto rulers of the Mysore Kingdom from 1761 to 1799. Here is a brief history of the rise of Hyder Ali Khan from an ordinary soldier to the position of the defacto ruler of the Mysore Kingdom. Though illiterate, Hyder Ali is said to have an extraordinary memory.