Jalalat al-Din Radiyya (Raziyya): The Slave Empress of India

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Sultan Shams al-Din Iltutmish (1211-1236) was the greatest ruler of the Slave dynasty. Iltutmish's eldest and most capable son, Nasir al-Din Mahmud, had died prematurely (1229); reset of his sons were incompetent. Iltutmish nominated his capable daughter Raziyya to be his successor. He discerned in her countenance the signs of power and bravery, "My sons are devoted to the pleasures of youth, and no one of them is qualified to be king. They are unfit to rule the country, and after my death you will find that there is no one more competent to guide the State than my daughter", the Sultan said. However, the nobles of the court did not like the idea of being ruled by a woman, and upon the death of Iltutmish in 1236, his eldest surviving son Rukn al-Din Firuz was placed on the throne. Rukn al-Din was a pleasure-loving King who left the affairs of the government to his mother, Shah Turkan. Shah Turkan used her authority to ill treat the ladies of Iltutmish’s harem; She murdered Qutb al-Din, the infant son of Iltutmish. Soon rebellion occurred in many parts of the country and the wazir Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi also joined the rebels. Rukn al-Din marched from Delhi to suppress the rebellions. When Shah Turkan made an attempt to assassinate Raziyya, the people of Delhi rose in her defense. Shah Turkan was imprisoned, and Raziyya was raised to the throne (Nov 1236). Hearing this, Rukn al-Din hastened to Delhi, but he was captured by Raziyya's army. He died in confinement, after a reign of seven months.

Sher Shah Suri: The Lion King of India

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From Farid Khan to Sher Shah:

It was during the reign of Sultan Bahlol Lodi, that Ibrahim Khan Sur, grandfather of Farid Khan, came to India from Afghanistan. During the reign of Sikandar Lodi (son of Sultan Bahlol Lodi), Jamal Khan, the governor of Jaunpur, gave Ibrahim's son Hasan Khan, the Jagirs of Sasaram and Khwaspur in Bihar. Farid was born in the reign of Sultan Bahlol. The boy Farid was driven away from home by the maltreatment of his step mother. Farid went to his father's patron, Jamal Khan and learned Arabic and Persian literature and history at Jaunpur. Being pleased with his talent, Farid was appointed by his father to administer the Jagirs of Sasaram and Khwaspur (1515). Farid managed the estate with great ability and in a very short time, the parganas became prosperous. His step mother became jealous of him and wanted Hasan to transfer the Jagirs in the name of her son, Suleiman. Due to influence of Suleiman's mother, Hasan was compelled to dismiss Farid and appointed Suleiman to manage the Jagirs (1520). Farid went to Agra and entered into the service of Daulat Khan, one of the Amirs at the court of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. On the death of his father in 1525, Ibrahim Lodi conferred him the Jagir of his father. Suleiman, unable to oppose him, went to Muhammad Khan Sur, the governor of Chaundh, for protection. (Muhammad Sur desired that the brothers should quarrel and destroy themselves, and finally occupy the Jagir himself) Since Farid refused to divide the parganas between him and Suleiman, Muhammad Sur was preparing to take them by force. To counter this, Farid decided to join the service of Bahar Khan Nuhani, the governor of Bihar. By this time, Babur defeated Sultan Ibrahim Lodi and established the Mughal Empire (1526).

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, A Forgotten King

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Not many people have heard about, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly known as Hemu, who was the last Hindu ruler of Delhi (1556). Let's go through the history of Delhi: Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain (1192) by Muhammad Ghori and the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526) was established. Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur defeated Sultan Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire in India (1526). The Mughal Rule was interrupted briefly; when Sher Shah Suri defeated Babur's son Humayun and established the Second Afghan Empire in India, known as the Sur Dynasty (1540-1555). Humayun had to leave India and took refugee in Persia (Iran).

Tips to Speed-up Your Blogger Blog

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If you have checked your blog's speed using the Google PageSpeed Insights tool, you might have got many suggestions to improve speed. I have also got many suggestions to improve my blog's speed; like Leverage browser caching, Eliminate render-blocking JavaScript and CSS in above-the-fold content, Optimize images, Minify JavaScript, Minify HTML, Reduce server response time etc. Unfortunately, we can't fix those since we have no control over the Server. However, here are some tips which may be useful for you to improve your blog's speed. Please note that the tips here mentioned are for Blogger blog only. I'm not sure whether it works with Wordpress or Websites.

Internal Revolts among the Mughals: Jahangir with Akbar & Khusrau with Jahangir

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MUGHAL Emperor Akbar's eldest son was born to him (Aug 30, 1569) with the blessings of a Sufi saint named Salim Chisti. The Saint had promised Akbar three sons; the following year his son Murad (Pahry) was born and two years later his son Daniyal. As a mark of admiration to Salim Chishti, Akbar named his eldest son Salim. "When my mother came near the time of her delivery, my father sent her to the Shaikh's house that I might be born there. After my birth they gave me the name of Sultan Salim, but I never heard my father call me Muhammad Salim or Sultan Salim, but always Shaikhu Baba", Salim says. Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri, (the city of victory) at Agra, in honor of Shaikh Salim Chishti (1571), which served as the capital of the Empire from 1571-1585. (Due to inadequate water supplies Sikri was abandoned in 1585 and Lahore became the new capital. In 1599, Akbar again shifted his capital back to Agra).