Thursday, 9 May 2013
Tuesday, 30 April 2013
Sunday, 28 April 2013
Prithviraj Chauhan (1168-1192 CE), the last ruler of Rajput dynasty, who ruled a kingdom in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century. He was born in 1168 to king Someshwara Chauhan and his wife Karpuravalli. After the death of his father, he became the king at the age of 11 and ruled from his twin capitals, Delhi and Ajmer. His elopement in 1175 with Samyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jai Chandra Rathod, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India.
One day at the Gurukul, young Prithviraj was attacked by a lion. Though caught unawares and unarmed, Prithviraj bravely fought the lion and killed it! Tales of his heroism spreading far & wide…. On the suggestion of Ram Purohit, Someshwar took Prithviraj to the Brahma temple in Pushkar where he was taught the art of "Shabd bhedi baan chalana" i.e. using a bow and arrow to shoot without seeing the target, purely on the basis of sound). With the stories of Prithviraj's courage, valour and intelligence spreading far and wide, Anangpal the King of Delhi decided to adopt him. He announced Prithviraj Chauhan as his heir. Thus he was crowned prince of Delhi at the young age of 13 years.
The story of Prithviraj's bold exploits spread far and wide in the country and he was the center of much discussion in the circle of the nobility. Sanyogita fell secretly in love with Prithiviraj. Jaichandra was very jealous of Prithviraj’s achievements and brave nature. He arranged a Swayamvar (a ceremony where a bride can select her husband from the assembled princes. She had the right to garland any prince and she became his queen. This is an ancient Hindu custom among Royalty) for his daughter Sanyogita, where he invited all the princes of the country to Kannauj, but deliberately ignored Prithiviraj. To add insult to injury, he even made a statue of Prithiviraj and kept him as a dwarpala. Prithviraj got to know of this and he confided his plans to his lover. On the said day, at the time of the swayamvar, Sanyogita passed all the eligible princes and finally garlanded Prithviraj's statue. Prithiviraj who was hiding behind the statue, also in the garb of a doorman, whisked Sanyogita away and put her up on his steed to make a fast getaway to his capital at Delhi. This was great insult to Jayachandra and he invited Ghori to attack Delhi.
Battles of Tarain
The Battles of Tarain, were fought in 1191 and 1192, near Thanesar in present-day Haryana, approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi, India, between Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri and Prithviraj Chauhan. Ghauri decided to extend the boundary of his kingdom. He invaded India in 1175 AD. After the conquest of Multan and Punjab, he advanced towards Delhi.
The First Battle of Tarain (1191 C.E.)
Muhammad Ghori invaded Prithviraj's domains and laid siege to the fortress of Bhatinda in Punjab, which was at the frontier between the two kingdoms. Prithviraj's army, led by his vassal Govinda-Raj of Delhi, rushed to the defense of the frontier, and the two armies met at Tarain. In face of the persistent Rajput attacks, the Ghori army broke ranks and fled. Ghauri's defeated army retreated to Lahore and, thereafter, returned to Ghazni. Mahmud Ghori was brought in chains to Pithoragarh - Prithviraj's capital and he begged his victor for mercy and release. Prithviraj's ministers advised against pardoning the aggressor. But the chivalrous and valiant Prithviraj thought otherwise and respectfully released the vanquished Ghori.
The Second Battle of Tarain (1192 C.E.)
In 1192, Muhammad Ghori returned with a larger army and met again Prithviraj’s army at Tarain. He delivered an ultimatum to Prithviraj Chauhan that either he changed his religion to Muslim or be prepared to be defeated by him. Ghori’s army attacked Prithviraj’s army in the very early hours of morning, as they were unprepared for the battle. The Hindus incidentally followed a hoary practice of battling only from sunrise up to sunset. Before Sunrise and after Sunset there was to be no fighting- as per a time honored battle code). The defeated Prithiviraj was pursued up to his capital and in chains he was taken as a captive to Ghor in Afghanistan. Thus Muhammad and his successors were able to conquest over the Rajputs and established an Islamic Empire in India, the Sultanate of Delhi.
Captivity, Revenge and Death
As a prisoner in Ghor, Prithviraj was brought in chains before Mahmud Ghori. He haughtily looked Ghori straight into the eye. Ghori ordered him to lower his eyes, whereupon a defiant Prithviraj scornfully reminded him of how he had treated Ghori when the latter was his prisoner. He declared that the eyelids of a Rajput are lowered only in death. On hearing this, Ghori flew into a rage and ordered that Prithviraj's eyes be burnt with red hot iron rods.
The Rajput king's court-poet and childhood friend Chand Bardai followed Ghori in disguise, came to his camp and gained his trust. He then met Prithvi and they made a plan. The two got an opportunity when Ghori announced an archery competition. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj Chauhan knew Shabdbhedi ban, but since he was a king, he would do so only on the orders of another king. Ghori agreed and asked him to aim at a ringing bell. But instead of the bell, Prithviraj aimed for the sound of Ghori's voice. Chand Bardai provided Prithviraj with an aural indication of where Ghori was seated. He gave Prithviraj one further indication of the same, by composing a couplet . The couplet, composed in a language understood only by Prithviraj went thus:
"Char bans, chaubis gaj, angul ashta praman, Ete pai hai Sultan, (Taa Upar hai Sultan), ab mat chuko hey Chauhan."
(Ten measures ahead of you and twenty four feet away, is seated the Sultan. Do not miss him now, Chauhan).
This is how Prithviraj kills Ghori in his court. In order to escape death at the hands of enemies he and his friend Chand Bardai stabbed each other. Thus ended the story of the brave and chivalrous Prithviraj Chauhan, the last Hindu ruler of Delhi.
Thursday, 25 April 2013
Theevram (Extreme) is a 2012 Malayalam crime thriller film written and directed by Roopesh Peethambaran, starring Dulquer Salmaan. The movie is about the outburst of a young man (Harsha) towards the legal system. The film is a dark thriller which have a socially relevant message and two plots, one set in the present and the other about five years back. Roby Abraham's musical score is superb!
And on the dark side...